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Protection of Human Rights

Human rights in India is an issue complicated by the country's large size, its tremendous diversity, its status as a developing country and a sovereign, secular, democratic republic. The Constitution of India provides for Fundamental rights, which include freedom of religion. Clauses also provide for Freedom of Speech, as well as separation of executive and judiciary and freedom of movement within the country and abroad.

In India the idea of human rights is not a contribution of western countries. These rights are a common heritage of glorious past. Of course, the enjoyment of these rights was not open to all segments of the society. There was no uniform application of these freedoms as the society was a caste-ridden hierarchical one. Throughout the period of liberation movement, Indians fought for the protection of their human rights such as political freedom and right of self-determination.

After independence, the constitution of India was formulated with a guarantee of fundamental rights and freedom. In conformity with the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights, Part III of the Indian Constitution provides six types of Fundamental Rights. All citizens are made equal in the enjoyment of rights and opportunities. At the same time special care is taken for protecting the interests of the weaker sections of the society through the policy of protective discrimination. There is reservation of seats for these weaker sections in the legislature and employment in government jobs.

The Constitution of India not only provides six fundamental rights to citizens but also has made them enforceable. The cases of the violation of human rights are alleged to be plenty which have taken different forms in different times. The examples are communal violence, caste rivalry, starvation death, exploitation of workers, domestic violence, custodian violence, sexual violence, social discrimination etc. For the eradication of this violence’s, a democratic polity, parliamentary form of government and an impartial and independent judiciary have been established.

India has been committed to ensure the protection and preservation of these rights. Judiciary has been separated from the executive. With the power of judicial review, the Supreme Court is empowered to strike down any law of the legislature and any order of the executive if they violate the fundamental rights of the people.

With the right to constitutional remedies, a citizen can move to court for getting the enforcement of the fundamental rights. For the eradication of poverty, hunger, disease, unemployment, illiteracy etc., India is committed to realize economic development through socio-economic planning. It has adopted the principle of economic liberalisation and world economy with its New Economic Policy of 1991 and has become the member of World Trade Organisation (WTO) in 1995.

Since 1980s, new types of mechanisms have been evolved for the protection of human rights of the poor, exploited and other disadvantaged groups of people. The system of free legal aid for the poor, the creation of Fast Track Courts and Special Courts for the speedy trial of cases, and the system of Public Interest Litigation are designed for the protection of the rights of the people.

The Supreme Court of India is recognizing Public Interest Litigations to a great extent. It enables social activists and conscious citizens to appeal for the protection of the human rights of the weaker sections of the society. The judiciary has been activated with these Public Interest Litigations and directing various governmental and private bodies to ensure the rights of the people. The Judiciary also orders for the appointment of Inquiry Commissions to investigate and report regarding the cases of violation of human rights.

30 Articles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights

  • We are All Born Free & Equal: We are all born free. We all have our own thoughts and ideas. We should all treat in the same way.
  • Don’t Discriminate: These rights belong to everybody, whatever our differences.
  • The Right to life: We all have the life, and to live in freedom and safety.
  • No Slavery: Nobody has any right to make us a slave. We cannot make any one our slave.
  • No Torture: Nobody has any right to hurt us or torture us.
  • You have Rights. No Matter where you go: I am a person just like you.
  • We are all Equal, Before the Law: The law is the same for everyone. It must treat us all fairly.
  • Your Human Rights are Protected by law : We can all ask for law to help us when we are not treated fairly.
  • No Unfair, Detainment: Nobody has to right to put us in person without good reason and keep us there, or to send us away from our country.
  • No Unfair to Trial: If we are put on trial this should be public. The people who try us should not let anyone tell them what to do.
  • We are always innocent till proven guilty: Nobody should be blamed for doing something until it is proven. When people say we did a bad thing we have right to show it is not true.
  • The Right to Privacy: Nobody should try to good name. Nobody has the right to come into our home, open our letters, or bother us or family without a good reason.
  • Freedom to Move: We all have to where we want in our own country to travel as we wish.
  • The Rights to seek a safe place to Live: If we are frightened of being badly treated in our own country, we all have the right to run away to another country to be safe.
  • Right to a Nationality: We all have right to belong to country.
  • Marriage and Family : Every grown up has the right to marry and have family if they want to men and women have the same right when they are married, and when they are separated.
  • The Right to own your things: Everyone has the right to own things or share them.
  • Freedom of Thought: We all have the right to believe in what we want to believe, to have a religion or change it we want.
  • Freedom of Expression: We all have the right to make up our own minds to think what we like, to say what we think and to share our ideas with other people.
  • The Right to Public Assembly: We all have the right to our friend and to work together in peace to defend our rights. Nobody can make us join group if we don’t want to.
  • The Right to Democracy: We all have the take part in the Government of our country. Every grown up should be allowed to choose their own leaders.
  • Social Society: We all have right to affordable housing medicine, education and child care enough money to live on medical help if we are ill or old.
  • Worker’s Right: Every grown up the right to do a job, to a fair wage for their work and to join a trade union.
  • The Right to Play: We all have right to rest from work and relax.
  • Food and shelter for all: We all have right to a good life. Mother and Children, people who are old, unemployed or disabled and all people have the right to be cared for.
  • The Right to Education: Education is right, primary school should be free. We should learn about the United Nations and how to get with other. Our parents can choose what we learn.
  • Copyright: Copyright is special law that protects one’s own artistic creations and writings; other cannot make copies without permission. We all have right to our own way of life and to enjoy the good things that art, science and learning bring.
  • A fair and free world: There must be proper order so we all enjoy rights and freedom in our own country and all over the world.
  • Responsibility: We have a duty to other people and we should protect their right and freedom.
  • No one can take away your Human Rights.